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23
My topic is about freshwater.
By Zulma Castillo


Freshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration — usually less than 1%. Plants and animals in freshwater regions are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e., ocean). There are different types of freshwater regions
The freshwater biome is made up of any of body of water that is made of freshwater such as lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers. They cover roughly 20% of the Earth and are in various locations spread out all over the world. Most freshwater biomes consist of moving water and contain many types of fish.
Only 3% of the water on Earth comes from freshwater biomes.
There are over 700 different species of fish that live in a freshwater biome.
99% of all freshwater is either in the form of ice or located in an aquifer.
Many animals besides fish live in freshwater biomes. This includes crocodiles, hippopotamus, turtles, and frogs.
Freshwater biomes are subdivided into three groups: lakes and ponds, streams and rivers, and wetlands.

The largest freshwater biome is the Florida Everglades
The water in a freshwater biome contains less than 1% of salt water. Any body of water that contains little to no salt is considered freshwater
Every freshwater biome is unique because they all contain a range of animal and plant species, different climates, and various amounts of water. No two freshwater biomes are exactly the same.

Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth's aquatic ecosystems. They include lakes and ponds, rivers, streams and springs, and wetlands. They can be contrasted with marine ecosystems, which have a larger salt content. F be classified by different factors, including temperature, light penetration, and vegetation.
Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into lentic ecosystems (still water) and lotic ecosystems (flowing water).
Limnology (and its branch freshwater biology) is a study about freshwater ecosystems. It is a part of hydrobiology.
Original efforts to understand and monitor freshwater ecosystems were spurred on by threats to human health (ex. Cholera outbreaks due to sewage contamination). Early monitoring focused on chemical indicators, then bacteria, and finally algae, fungi and protozoa. A new type of monitoring involves differing groups of organisms (macroinvertebrates, macrophytes and fish) and the stream conditions associated with them.
Current biomonitering techniques focus mainly on community structure or biochemical oxygen demand. Responses are measured by behavioral changes, altered rates of growth, reproduction or mortality. Macroinvertebrates are most often used in these models because of well known taxonomy, ease of collection, sensitivity to a range of stressors, and their overall value to the ecosystem. Most of these measurements are difficult to extrapolate on a large scale however.
The use of reference sites is common when assessing what a healthy freshwater ecosystem should “look like”. Reference sites are easier to reconstruct in standing water than moving water. Preserved indicators such as diatom valves, macrophyte pollen, insect chitin and fish scales can be used to establish a reference ecosystem representative of a time before large scale human disturbance.
Common chemical stresses on freshwater ecosystem health include acidification, eutrophication and copper and pesticide contamination
Over 123 freshwater fauna species have gone extinct in North America since 1900. Of North American freshwater species, an estimated 48.5% of mussels, 22.8% of gastropods, 32.7% of crayfishes, 25.9% of amphibians, and 21.3% of fishes are either endangered or threatened. Extinction rates of many species may increase severely into the next century because of invasive species, loss of keystone species and species which are already functionally extinct. Projected extinction rates for freshwater animals are around five times greater than for land animals, and are comparable to the rates for rain forest communities. Recent extinction trends can be attributed to human effects largely to sedimentation, stream fragmentation, chemical and organic pollutants, dams, and invasive species

external image 5176088.jpgexternal image Freshwater_Biome_2_600.jpg




Freshwater only has about 1% or less of salt which means it has low salt concentration. The biome is made up of lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers that all contain freshwater. We only get about 3% of our water that we get from Earth comes from the fresh water biomes. 99% of our purified freshwater comes from a located aquifer or from ice. There are three groups lakes/ponds, streams/rivers, and wetlands. One of the biggest freshwater biomes is the Florida Everglades. This biome is unique because there's a wide range of animals, plant species, different climates, and different amounts of water. Frogs, turtles, crocodiles, and hippopotamus live in freshwater besides fish living there as well. If there is a body of water that only has 1% or no salt, it's considered to be freshwater. Freshwater is a subset part of the Earth's aquatic ecosystems. The freshwater ecosystems can be divided in lentic ecosystem (still water) and also lotic ecosystem (flowing water). There is more than 700 species that live in freshwater.

The study of freshwater is called Limnology. Many people are making efforts to protect and monitor freshwater from pollution by human threats like sewage contamination. Most of the biomonitoring techniques only focus on structure and biochemical oxygen demand. But it's difficult to extrapolate the measurements in a large scale. In the 1900's, there were over than 123 freshwater fauna species that went extinct in North America. There were 48.5% of mussels, 22.8% of gastropods, 32.7% crayfish, 25.9% amphibians, and 21.3% of fish that were being either threatened or were endangered. The extinction of these may be caused by humans since there is sedimentation, stream fragmentation, chemical/organic compounds, and invasive species.






Ducks/Geese in freshwater
Ducks/Geese in freshwater