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13

tundra biome3

external image th?id=H.4787025684661507&w=307&h=188&c=7&rs=1&pid=1.7external image th?id=H.5023321889311727&w=307&h=188&c=7&rs=1&pid=1.7external image Tundra-Biome-Animals.jpgexternal image 9461639_orig.jpg
tundra is a frozen piece of land.that has lot of interesting animals and plants.and the people go there just to take pictures.
The tundra biome is believed to be the youngest of all of them in the world. It was believed to have formed approximately 10,000 years ago. Approximately 20% or of the surface of the Earth falls into this category.
You will find the tundra biome along the coastal regions of the arctic. The combination of polar air and arctic air masses dominate in this particular biome. There is a very long winter and it is cold and harsh. The summer is short and mild, but most experts don’t view it as a true summer season.
The tundra biome consists of wasteland that is extremely cold. There are lots of rocks too but not very much vegetation. There are almost no trees at all found in this particular biome. The area is very cold and often dry. Yet the temperatures don’t warm up enough for the snow that is in place to melt completely. Muddy areas can develop when it does warm up though as some of the ice begins to melt.
Greenland is the number one place that people think of when they consider a tundra biome. They also think about areas of Alaska. However, there are also areas of Northern Canada and Northern Russia that are a tundra biome. The span of the tundra biome is mainly in areas where most people have never been. They would find such living conditions to be too harsh for them to thrive there

The Arctic Fox is able to survive in the tundra biome. This is a fairly small animal with a very thick coat. It usually weighs about 6 pounds and is about 12 inches in length. They are solitary animals that will do very well in the tundra biome due to their adaptive nature. It is able to make burrows under ground to escape the severe cold temperatures found there.
They are scavengers so they are willing to consume anything they find in order to survive. It is typical of them to find remains that Polar Bears and other animals have left behind. Other food sources include berries, birds, eggs, insects, and fish. There are thousands of Arctic Fox that live in the tundra biome.
Caribou also live in the tundra biome. There are approximately 5 million of them that are known to reside in this type of climate. They are also referred to as Reindeer. This is the only species of deer where both sexes develop antlers. They have a body that works very well for the climate in the tundra biome.
They have very large hooves that allow them to get through the thick snow without using too much energy. These hooves also allow them to have the traction they need for walking through muddy marsh areas. They use their hooves and antlers to remove snow so that they can find sources of food. They consume lichens, shrubs, flowers, and mushrooms. When food sources are scarce in the tundra biome they are able to slow down their metabolism.
There are many other types of animals that are able to live in the tundra biome. They include Grizzly Bear, Musk Ox, Snowy Owl, and the magnificent Polar Bear. Each of these animals have their own roles to play in such a society in order for all to survive. There have been a total of 48 different species of animals living in the tundra biome.
Polar Bears

Polar bears, with their thick white fur, sharp teeth and claws and powerful bodies are the ultimate tundra predators. They can be found in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia and Norway. A polar bear's diet consists largely of the birds, seals and walrus. From these animals the polar bear is able to extract valuable fats and oils to help it insulate it's body and survive the long cold winters. A polar bear's stomach can hold an estimated 15% to 20% of its body weight. A polar bear generally eats this much only when its energy demands are high. A bear can assimilate 84% of the protein and 97% of the fat it eats.



Penguins

Penguins live in the Antarctic regions ( Southern Hemisphere ). The hunt in open seas or oceans eating fish, squid, krill or shrimp. The skin of a penguin is particularly thick and covers a layer of fat. This is an adaptation, much like that of the polar bear to help them survive the extreme cold climate of the antarctic tundra. The smaller penguin species of the Antarctic and the sub-antarctic primarily feed on krill and squids. Species found farther north tend to eat fishes. Penguins primarily rely on their vision while hunting. It is not known how penguins locate prey in the darkness, at night, or at great depths, Some scientists hypothesize that penguins are helped by the bio luminescence (light producing) capabilities of many oceanic squids, crustaceans, and fishes.



Musk Oxen

Musk Oxen are found in Canada, Greenland, Alaska and Ellesmere Island. Their diet is made up of grasses, lichens, sedges, woody plants, leaves and mosses. The fur of the musk oxen is around 3-4 inches thick and provides excellent heath insulation. Musk oxen are ruminants, animals with four-chambered stomachs. The rumen, the stomach's first chamber, partially digests the food, which is then regurgitated, chewed further and then swallowed. The rumen is home to bacteria that ferment food, which releases additional caloric energy from the food source.



Arctic foxes

With their pure white winter coats and cute facial features, Arctic foxes are certainly one of the favorite Tundra based animals on the planet. The lives in dry and cold places such as Canada, Greenland and Alaska. Their diet comprises small mammals, lemmings, tundra voles, seabirds, and puffins. Their coats come in two 'phases' - a blue phase and a white phase. The Arctic fox is not endangered world wide and it is estimated that there are several thousand arctic foxes left in the wild. Two arctic fox populations are endangered, however. One in Russia has been reduced to around 90 animals because of a mange caused by ear ticks introduced by dogs. The second in Fennoscandia (Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Kola Peninsula) was caused by over hunting around the turn of the century. The total number of breeding pairs there is about 140.



Arctic Hares

Arctic hares can be found living in the tundra of Canada, on the Arctic island and also in Greenland. Being a vegetarian animal, Arctic hares survive on a diet of plants, mosses, lichens, buds, berries, leaves, seaweed, bark, willow twigs and roots. Arctic hares are sometimes loners but they can also be found in groups of dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of individuals. Unlike many mammals, arctic hare groups disperse rather than form during mating season. Animals pair off and define mating territories, though a male may take more than one female partner.

Arctic Wolves

A predator, the arctic wolf will gladly prey on arctic hares, birds,caribou, musk oxen, lemmings, seals and sometimes try their hand ( paw ? ) at a spot of fishing too. Surprise attacks are almost impossible on the open tundra; by the time the pack approaches, its prey is in a defensive stance. Musk oxen, for example, will form a circle with their calves safely on the inside. The wolf pack must then try to disrupt the herd. The wolves circle the herd and prowl around, forcing the oxen to shift their ground to face them. If the wolves are successful, the oxen scatter. Once the herd has scatter, the wolves give chase, trying to isolate a young or weak animal. If one wolf catches a victim, the other will aid in killing it. A musk ox provides enough food to last the wolves for several days.



Snowy Owl

Snowy owls can be found in the Arctic tundra of North America and Eurasia. Theie habitat consists of open grasslands and fields and sometimes frozen expanses of water. They are also known to be found around the lake shores, marshes, and roost on buildings in cities and towns. In the Arctic regions, snowy owls usually nest on pingaluks (small , circular rises in the tundra grass-beds). Their diet includes mice, rats, hares, moles and other mammals;including rabbits. They also eats various birds (dove, grouse, quail) and water foul (ducks, grebes and medium sized geese). The Snowy can locate prey strictly audibly and may plunge in the snow for visibly hidden rodents like lemmings. It usually hunts from an elevated position that can vary from a raised knoll to a treetop or telephone pole along the edge of a field. It often makes long lowflights to capture prey on the ground or birds from the water's surface or pursues them in the air. It can hover and pounce on prey from the air or while on the ground. The Snowy is even said to catch fish, amphibians, and crustaceans.





Arctic Lemmings

Lemmings eat mostly plants such as mosses, grasses, herbs, shoots, and lichen. In summer, collared lemmings occupy the high, dry, and rocky areas of the tundra, where they shelter in shallow underground burrows or under rocks. Nesting chambers are often lined with dry grasses, feathers, and muskox fur. In the winter, lemmings may move to the lower meadow where the "blanket" of snow is thicker and remains for a longer period of time. Winter nests typically are built on the tundra surface, under the snow, and sometimes even in the middle of snow-banks.



Walrus

Walruses are found in the region of Arctic seas from Alaska, Canada and Greenland to Russia. Their habitat is on open water, near to shore or on ice flows. Walruses primarily eat species that dwell on the sea bottom, such as mollusks, octopus, crabs, shrimp, salt worms, other crustaceans, shrimps, worms, some fish, clamps, mussels, other pinnipeds such as spotted seals. Because visibility is poor in deep and murky waters, walruses rely on their vibrissae to locate food. A walrus moves its snout along the bottom, rooting through the sediment. Abrasion patterns of the tusks show that they are dragged through the sediment, but are not used to dig up prey.Researchers have found numerous pebbles and small stones in the stomachs of walruses. They are thought to be ingested while feeding.



Caribou

Caribou mostly eat ground and tree lichens. They also eat shrubs, grasses and willows. It takes 80 to 150 years for a forest to grow enough lichens for caribou. Like other deer and cattle, caribou have a four-chambered stomach capable of digesting the tough, fibrous plant and lichen materials containing cellulose that comprise most of their diet. Caribou ruminate, which means they re-chew frage that has previously fermented in the fore-pouches of their stomach.